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we can salvage database(even without backup) in below situation :
- drop table or drop/create, truncate table
- drop tablespace
- unrecoverable exp/expdp backup or rman backup
- deleted rows
- failed to mount asm diskgroup
- corrupted file system
- deleted System01.dbf
- drop user
- ora-00600 ora-07445
- database can not be open
- corrupted block
- asm diskgroup disk header/metadata corrupted, asm diskgroup can't be mounted
- inconsistent restores/recoveries or any situation preventing your datase from opening, like missing archivelogs
- mismatch of backups due to faulty tape rotation
- corruption of data dictionary or bootstrap objects
- the loss of system tablespace : in case of a missing data dictionary, a heuristic scanner will examine the data and will try to determine datatypes and columns
- orphaned datafiles : same as the loss of the system tablespace, even if you only have one datafile left - data can be extracted
- dropped columns
Oracle Block/Lock error info：
Error Description Corruption related to: ORA-1578 ORA-01578 ORA-1578 is reported when a block is thought to be corrupt on read.
OERR: ORA-1578 “ORACLE data block corrupted (file # %s, block # %s)” Master Note OERR: ORA-1578 “ORACLE data block corrupted (file # %s, block # %s)” Fractured Block explanation Handling Oracle Block Corruptions in Oracle7/8/8i/9i/10g/11g Diagnosing and Resolving 1578 reported on a Local Index of a Partitioned table ORA-1410 ORA-01410 This error is raised when an operation refers to a ROWID in a table for which there is no such row.
The reference to a ROWID may be implicit from a WHERE CURRENT OF clause or directly from a WHERE ROWID=… clause.
ORA 1410 indicates the ROWID is for a BLOCK that is not part of this table.
Understanding The ORA-1410 Summary Of Bugs Containing ORA 1410 OERR: ORA 1410 “invalid ROWID” ORA-8103 ORA-08103 The object has been deleted by another user since the operation began.
If the error is reproducible, following may be the reasons:-
a.) The header block has an invalid block type.
b.) The data_object_id (seg/obj) stored in the block is different than the data_object_id stored in the segment header. See dba_objects.data_object_id and compare it to the decimal value stored in the block (field seg/obj).
ORA-8103 Troubleshooting, Diagnostic and Solution OERR: ORA-8103 “object no longer exists” / Troubleshooting, Diagnostic and Solution ORA-8102 ORA-08102 An ORA-08102 indicates that there is a mismatch between the key(s) stored in the index and the values stored in the table. What typically happens is the index is built and at some future time, some type of corruption occurs, either in the table or index, to cause the mismatch.
OERR ORA-8102 “index key not found, obj# %s, file %s, block %s (%s) ORA-1499 ORA-01499 An error occurred when validating an index or a table using the ANALYZE command.
One or more entries does not point to the appropriate cross-reference.
ORA-1499. Table/Index row count mismatch OERR: ORA-1499 table/Index Cross Reference Failure – see trace file ORA-1498 ORA-01498 Generally this is a result of an ANALYZE … VALIDATE … command.
This error generally manifests itself when there is inconsistency in the data/Index block. Some of the block check errors that may be found:-
a.) Row locked by a non-existent transaction
b.) The amount of space used is not equal to block size
c.) Transaction header lock count mismatch.
While support are processing the tracefile it may be worth the re-running the ANALYZE after restarting the database to help show if the corruption is consistent or if it ‘moves’.
Send the tracefile to support for analysis.
If the ANALYZE was against an index you should check the whole object. Eg: Find the tablename and execute:
ANALYZE TABLE xxx VALIDATE STRUCTURE CASCADE;
Block OERR: ORA 1498 “block check failure – see trace file” ORA-26040 Trying to access data in block that was loaded without redo generation using the NOLOGGING/UNRECOVERABLE option.
This Error raises always together with ORA-1578
OERR ORA-26040 Data block was loaded using the NOLOGGING option ORA-1578 / ORA-26040 Corrupt blocks by NOLOGGING – Error explanation and solution ORA-1578 ORA-26040 in a LOB segment – Script to solve the errors ORA-1578 ORA-26040 in 11g for DIRECT PATH with NOARCHIVELOG even if LOGGING is enabled ORA-1578 ORA-26040 On Awr Table Errors ORA-01578, ORA-26040 On Standby Database Workflow Tables ORA-01578 ORACLE data block corrupted ORA-26040 Data block was loaded using the NOLOGGING option ORA-1578, ORA-26040 Data block was loaded using the NOLOGGING option
Oracle is trying to access a row using its ROWID, which has been obtained from an index.
A mismatch was found between the index rowid and the data block it is pointing to. The rowid points to a non-existent row in the data block. The corruption can be in data and/or index blocks.
ORA-600  can also be reported due to a consistent read (CR) problem.
Resolving an ORA-600  error in Oracle 8 and above. ORA-600  “Index entry Points to Missing ROWID”
This is called a ‘STUCK RECOVERY’.
There is an inconsistency between the information stored in the redo and the information stored in a database block being recovered.
Redo ORA-600  “Stuck Recovery” Information Required for Root Cause Analysis of ORA-600  (stuck recovery)
A mismatch has been detected between Redo records and rollback (Undo) records.
We are validating the Undo record number relating to the change being applied against the maximum undo record number recorded in the undo block.
This error is reported when the validation fails.
Undo ORA-600  “Undo Record Number Mismatch While Adding Undo Record” Basic Steps to be Followed While Solving ORA-00600 / Errors Without Using Unsupported parameter
A mismatch has been detected between Redo records and Rollback (Undo) records.
We are validating the Undo block sequence number in the undo block against the Redo block sequence number relating to the change being applied.
This error is reported when this validation fails.
Undo ORA-600  “seq# mismatch while adding undo record” Basic Steps to be Followed While Solving ORA-00600 / Errors Without Using Unsupported parameter Ora-600  When Opening Or Shutting Down A Database ORA-600  When Trying To Open The Database
While backing out an undo record (i.e. at the time of rollback) we found a transaction id mis-match indicating either a corruption in the rollback segment or corruption in an object which the rollback segment is trying to apply undo records on.
This would indicate a corrupted rollback segment.
Undo/Redo ORA-600  “XID in Undo and Redo Does Not Match”
Not enough free space was found when inserting a row into an index leaf block during the application of undo. Index ORA-600  “insert into leaf block (undo)”
Oracle is attempting to read or update a generic entry in the control file.
If the entry number is invalid, ORA-600  is logged.
Control File ORA-600  “Attempt to access non-existant controlfile entry”
Oracle is checking the status of transaction locks within a block.
If the lock number is greater than the number of lock entries, ORA-600  is reported followed by a stack trace, process state and block dump.
This error possibly indicates a block corruption.
Block ORA-600  “Lock count mismatch”
A data block SCN is ahead of the current SCN.
The ORA-600  occurs when an SCN is compared to the dependent SCN stored in a UGA variable.
If the SCN is less than the dependent SCN then we signal the ORA-600  internal error.
Block ORA-600  “Block SCN is ahead of Current SCN” ORA 600  DURING STARTUP
We are accessing a rollback segment header to see if a transaction has been committed.
However, the xid given is in the future of the transaction table.
This could be due to a rollback segment corruption issue OR you might be hitting the following known problem.
Undo ORA-600  “Corruption”
It means that Oracle has tried to find an undo segment number in the dictionary cache and failed. Undo ORA-600  “trying to get dba of undo segment header block from usn”
Oracle is undoing an index leaf key operation. If the key is not found, ORA-00600  is logged.
ORA-600 is usually caused by a media corruption problem related to either a lost write to disk or a corruption on disk.
Index ORA-600 
This assertion is raised because we are trying to unlock the rows in a block, but receive an incorrect block type.
The second argument is the block type received.
Block ORA-600 
Oracle is checking that the row slot we are about to free is not already on the free list.
This internal error is raised when this check fails.
Row ORA-600  “Corrupt Block When Freeing a Row Slot
During a delete operation we are deleting from a view via an instead-of trigger or an Index organized table and have exceeded a 5000 pass count when we raise this exception. Row ORA-600  “Problem occurred when trying to delete a row”
During the execution of an UPDATE statement, after several attempts (Arg [a] passcount) we are unable to get a stable set of rows that conform to the WHERE clause. Row ORA-600  “Unable to get a Stable set of Records” How to resolve ORA-00600 , 
We are trying to generate the absolute file number given a tablespace number and relative file number and cannot find a matching file number or the file number is zero. afn/rdba/tsn ORA-600  “Relative to Absolute File Number Conversion Error”
Looking up/checking a tablespace
invalid tablespace ID and/or rdba found
afn/rdba/tsn ORA-600 
Invalid tsn and/or rfn found afn/rdba/tsn ORA-600 
An object block buffer in memory is checked and is found to have the wrong object id. This is most likely due to corruption. Buffer Cache ORA-600 [kcbz_check_objd_typ_3] ORA-600 [kcbz_check_objd_typ]
ORA-600[kddummy_blkchk] is for 10.1/10.2 and ORA-600[kdblkcheckerror] for 11 onwards. Block ORA-600 [kddummy_blkchk] How to Resolve ORA-00600[kddummy_blkchk] ORA-600 [kdblkcheckerror]
QREF – kddummy_blkchk / kdBlkCheckError – Check Codes Listing (Full) [This section is not visible to customers.]
QREF – kddummy_blkchk / kdBlkCheckError – Check Codes Definition && Return Values[This section is not visible to customers.]
This exception occurs when there are problems obtaining the row cache information correctly from sys.seg$. In most cases there is no information in sys.seg$.
Row ORA-600 [qertbfetchbyrowid]
This exception is raised when we are performing a sanity check on the dependent SCN and fail.
The dependent scn is greater than the current scn.
Dictionary ORA-600 [ktbdchk1: bad dscn]